Thermal conductivity[ edit ] Thermal transport in graphene is an active area of research which has attracted attention because of the potential for thermal management applications. For example, isotopically pure 12C graphene has higher thermal conductivity than either a The ballistic thermal conductance of graphene is isotropic. The two in-plane modes LA, TA have a linear dispersion relationwhile the out of plane mode ZA has a quadratic dispersion relation.
Movie Gallery Welcome to the Molecular Expressions website featuring our acclaimed photo galleries that explore the fascinating world of optical microscopy.
We are going where no microscope has gone before by offering one of the Web's largest collections of color photographs taken through an optical microscope commonly referred to as "photo-micro-graphs". Visit our Photo Gallery for an introductory selection of images covering just about everything from beer and ice cream to integrated circuits and ceramic superconductors.
These photographs are available for licensing to commercial, private, and non-profit institutions. The Universe Within - Soar through space starting at 10 million light years away from the Milky Way down through to a single proton in Florida in decreasing orders of magnitude powers of ten.
This tutorial explores the use of exponential notation to understand and compare the size of things in our world and the universe, and provides a glimpse of the duality between the macroworld around us and the hidden microworld within. Electromagnetic Radiation - Visible light is a complex phenomenon that is classically explained with a simple model based on propagating rays and wavefronts, a concept first proposed in the late s by Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens.
Electromagnetic radiation, the larger family of wave-like phenomena to which visible light belongs also known as radiant energyis the primary vehicle transporting energy through the vast reaches of the universe. The mechanisms by which visible light is emitted or absorbed by substances, and how it predictably reacts under varying conditions as it travels through space and the atmosphere, form the basis of the existence of color in our universe Spinning Disk Confocal Microscopy - Spinning disk microscopy has advanced significantly in the past decade and now represents one of the optimum solutions for both routine and high-performance live-cell imaging applications.
The rapid expansion in biomedical research using live-cell imaging techniques over the past several years has been fueled by a combination of events that include dramatic advances in spinning disk confocal microscopy instrumentation coupled with the introduction of novel ultra-sensitive detectors and continued improvements in the performance of genetically-encoded fluorescent proteins.
Spectral Imaging and Linear Unmixing Structural and optical properties of pulsed laser Spectral imaging and linear unmixing is becoming an important staple in the microscopist's toolbox, particularly when applied to the elimination of autofluorescence and for FRET investigations.
Instruments equipped for spectral imaging are becoming increasingly popular and many confocal microscopes now offer this capability. Widefield fluorescence and brightfield microscopy are also being used more frequently for resolving complex fluorophore and absorbing dye mixtures, a trend that should continue into the future.
Fluorescent Protein Technology - It took over thirty years, and the advent of recombinant DNA as well as vastly improved molecular biological approaches to see the pioneering work of Osamu Shimomura developed into a useful tool for live-cell imaging by Doug Prasher and Martin Chalfie. Just in the past decade, however, we have witnessed a truly remarkable expansion in the fluorescent protein palette, largely driven by the innovative studies from Roger Tsien's laboratory.
Most of the fluorescent proteins that are commonly used today have been modified through mutagenesis to optimize their expression in biological systems. Continued efforts using directed evolution approaches will no doubt improve the spectral characteristics, photostability, maturation time, brightness, acid resistance, and utility of the fluorescent protein tags for cellular imaging.
Carl Zeiss MicroImaging Online Campus - Visit the new ZEISS website that explores the fascinating world of optical microscopy and provides the necessary background to understand both the basic concepts and advanced principles.
Included are review articles, interactive Flash tutorials, reference materials, and image galleries. Light Sources for Optical Microscopy - The performance of the various illumination sources available for optical microscopy depends on the emission characteristics and geometry of the source, as well as the focal length, magnification and numerical aperture of the collector lens system.
In gauging the suitability of a particular light source, the important parameters are structure the spatial distribution of light, source geometry, coherence, and alignmentthe wavelength distribution, spatial and temporal stability, brightness, and to what degree these various parameters can be controlled.
Learning about Electricity and Magnetism - Visit our sister website for interactive Java tutorials, a timeline of historical events, a museum of antique devices, and articles on topics related to electricity and magnetism.
Structural and Optical Properties of PbS Thin Films Deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposited (PLD) Technique at Different Annealing Temperature. Kadhim A. Aadim 1, Abdul-Majeed E. Ibrahim 2, Jassim M. Marie 2,. 1 Department of Physics, University of Baghdad, College of Sciences. 2 Department of Physics, University of Tikrit, College Of Education. With the above advancements, it is necessary to revisit the prevailing Cu 2 O crystals with tailored architectures. To date, although several previous review papers have reported the partial summaries of the progresses in facet-dependent properties of Cu 2 O crystals,,,, a comprehensive summary on Cu 2 O crystals is lacking and highly desirable to further promote the development of. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) layers manufactured at different process conditions were investigated. ZnO epitaxial layers were grown on silicon, glass, and ITO/glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The influence of power beam, substrate temperature, and deposition time on films properties was analysed.
Live-Cell Imaging - An increasing number of investigations are using live-cell imaging techniques to provide critical insight into the fundamental nature of cellular and tissue function, especially due to the rapid advances that are currently being witnessed in fluorescent protein and synthetic fluorophore technology.
As such, live-cell imaging has become a requisite analytical tool in most cell biology laboratories, as well as a routine methodology that is practiced in the wide ranging fields of neurobiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and many of the other related biomedical research disciplines.
Comparing Confocal and Widefield Fluorescence Microscopy - Confocal microscopy offers several distinct advantages over traditional widefield fluorescence microscopy, including the ability to control depth of field, elimination or reduction of background information away from the focal plane that leads to image degradationand the capability to collect serial optical sections from thick specimens.
The basic key to the confocal approach is the use of spatial filtering techniques to eliminate out-of-focus light or glare in specimens whose thickness exceeds the dimensions of the focal plane. This interactive tutorial explores and compares the differences between specimens when viewed in a confocal versus a widefield fluorescence microscope.
Because energy transfer is limited to distances of less than 10 nanometers, the detection of FRET provides valuable information about the spatial relationships of fusion proteins on a sub-resolution scale.
This interactive tutorial explores various combinations of fluorescent proteins as potential FRET partners and provides information about critical resonance energy transfer parameters, as well as suggestions for microscope optical filter and light source configuration.
The Fluorescent Protein Color Palette - A broad range of fluorescent protein genetic variants have been developed over the past several years that feature fluorescence emission spectral profiles spanning almost the entire visible light spectrum.
Extensive mutagenesis efforts in the original jellyfish protein have resulted in new fluorescent probes that range in color from blue to yellow and are some of the most widely used in vivo reporter molecules in biological research.
Longer wavelength fluorescent proteins, emitting in the orange and red spectral regions, have been developed from the marine anemone Discosoma striata and reef corals belonging to the class Anthozoa. Still other species have been mined to produce similar proteins having cyan, green, yellow, orange, red, and far-red fluorescence emission.
Developmental research efforts are ongoing to improve the brightness and stability of fluorescent proteins, thus improving their overall usefulness. Introduction to Image Processing and Analysis - John Russ has taught hands-on courses and extended workshops in image processing and analysis to more than students, worldwide, over the course of his career.
His one-day tutorials and lectures, sponsored by various professional societies and other organizations, have reached several thousand more.
But the need to have a basic understanding of these topics is far wider than he can ever reach in person.
Potentially everyone working with images, and certainly that includes every microscopist, needs to be aware of the possibilities and limitations of computer-based image processing and measurement.
The descriptive reviews and interactive tutorials in this section cover most of the topics that the author discusses in typical one-day tutorials. Fluorescent Protein Fluorophore Maturation Mechanisms - Autocatalytic formation of the fluorophore also referred to as a chromophore within the shielded environment of the polypeptide backbone during fluorescent protein maturation follows a surprisingly unified mechanism, especially considering the diverse natural origins of these useful biological probes.
Shortly after synthesis, most fluorescent proteins slowly mature through a multi-step process that consists of folding, initial fluorophore ring cyclization, and subsequent modifications of the fluorophore. The spectral properties of fluorescent proteins are dependent upon the structure of the fluorophore as well as the localized interactions of amino acid residues in the immediate vicinity, and in some cases, residues far removed from the fluorophore.
The interactive tutorials in this section explore fluorophore formation in a wide variety of spectrally diverse fluorescent proteins deduced from crystallographic studies.
The Virtual Rat - The humble rat has had an outsized impact on human history. In the Middle Ages, the black rat Rattus rattus was blamed for spreading the Black Plague through its fleas, a pandemic that killed a third of Europe's population, an estimated 34 million people.PhotoFacial IPL/BBL.
Treatments that use Intense Pulsed Light work to treat brown spots and redness. There is also research to suggest that ongoing treatments will positively effected gene expression in the skin to mimic that of a younger person.
The upcoming meeting will be hosted at the modernly designed 4**** hotel Holiday Inn situated in a green area of Bydgoszcz near River Brda. The city’s historic Old Town is a 5-minute walk from the property, as is the modern-day city centre.
Structural and Optical Properties of PbS Thin Films Deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposited (PLD) Technique at Different Annealing Temperature. Kadhim A.
Aadim 1, Abdul-Majeed E. Ibrahim 2, Jassim M. Marie 2,.
1 Department of Physics, University of Baghdad, College of Sciences. 2 Department of Physics, University of Tikrit, College . Back to Diode Lasers Sub-Table of Contents. Diode Laser Modules and Laser Pointers Alternatives to Using Raw Laser Diodes Where what you really want is a visible laser, a commercial diode laser module or some brands of laser pointers (those that include optical feedback based laser power regulation) may be the best option.
Structural and Optical Properties of PbS Thin Films Deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposited (PLD) Technique at Different Annealing Temperature. Kadhim A. Aadim 1, Abdul-Majeed E. Ibrahim 2, Jassim M. Marie 2,.
1 Department of Physics, University of Baghdad, College of Sciences.
2 Department of Physics, University of Tikrit, College Of Education. The electrical and optical properties have been measured and related to the crystallographic properties of the layers.
2. Thin film depositionThe films were .