Statistics chap12 cases

The optimal order size is The total annual inventory cost is determined by substituting Qopt into the total cost formula: The number of orders per year is computed as follows: Given that the store is open days annually days minus 52 Sundays, Thanksgiving, and Christmasthe order cycle is The optimal order quantity, determined in this example, and in general, is an approximate value, since it is based on estimates of carrying and ordering costs as well as uncertain demand although all of these parameters are treated as known, certain values in the EOQ model.

Statistics chap12 cases

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The kind of catastrophe described at the beginning of the chapter probably would not occur before there was an entirely different catastrophe. The sun will expand into a red giant and engulf the earth—perhaps 5 billion years from now. Anything heavier than a few hundred pounds would produce severe damage when striking the colony, about the same effect as setting off a fair-size bomb in the World Trade Center.

However, even meteoroids as small as a pound would be rare and much less of a problem than airliners crashing into backyards on Earth.

The most common meteoritic effect would be a slow sandblasting of the windows and hull produced by micrometeorites. Once every few years the colony would probably be hit by something large enough to make people take notice.

Statistics chap12 cases

This would break a window, perhaps, or punch a hole in the hull. On the scale of the colony, this would be similar to an auto puncture by a nail. A nail puncture usually results in a slow leak which you notice a few hours later when you stop for gas.

The gas station attendant will cover the tire with soapy water and you will see the bubbles where air is escaping. It takes at least several hours for the tire to go flat, and similarly the leakdown rates in colonies will be quite slow.

Daniel Villani of Princeton University has computed that with a hole as large as three feet wide, it would still take over ten hours to lose half the atmosphere of a colony.

Small leaks will be fixed much as you would repair a minor hole in a boat with a patch and caulking compound. For a larger hole, there probably will be something like a large metal tortoise shell which can be set over the hole to stop the leak.

Workers in space suits then can weld an appropriate patch into place or replace a broken window pane. There is a type of artificial meteoroid which may be dangerous to a colony.

The mass-catcher described in chapter 6 would be propelled by rotary pellet launchers. The launchers resemble garden sprinklers which throw rocks—they eject small pellets at high velocities to give thrust.

The pellets will not disappear but orbit through space as artificial meteoroids. They will not be sand grains, and will be just the right size for breaking windows or punching neat holes in the colony wall.

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The pellets will not be ejected in any particular direction, but will be scattered and their hazard will be a matter for statistics. The astronomer George Wetherill, of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, has studied the danger from meteoroids with orbits similar to the pellets.

After 10 to million years, they will be swept up by Earth. Earth has a billion times more area than a space colony.

Statistics chap12 cases

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Chapter 12 answers

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Chapter 12 – Census geography