Margarine, shortening, non-dairy whiteners, beverages, breakfast cereals, supplements. Beta-carotene is used as an artificial coloring and a nutrient supplement.
Originally published as 61 Tenn. For educational use only. The printed edition remains canonical. For citational use please obtain a back issue from William S. Introduction Predictably, gun violence, particularly homicide, is a major study topic for social scientists, particularly criminologists.
Our focus is the remarkable difference between the way medical and public health writers treat firearms issues and the way social scientists treat those issues.
Examination of the literature produced by medical and health writers reveals why their conclusions on firearms diverge so radically from those of criminological scholarship. We focus on that literature's anomalies both for their own sake and because that focus allows us to explore some of the more important policy and legal issues of gun control.
This is the case in many European countries. That term could mean no more than noncontroversial measures to prohibit gun misuse or gun possession by high risk groups. In the literature we are analyzing, however, "guns are not HCI seeks only to ban gun ownership for self-defense, but would allow licensed sportsmen to have both handguns and long guns for purely sporting purposes;  the Coalition to Stop Gun Violence p.
On the contrary, exhortations to "[s]peak out for gun control" are seen as part of an admirable tradition of political advocacy by doctors and other health professionals in support of political measures designed to improve public health.
After all, guns are hateful things for which no decent purpose is imaginable, certainly not self-defense.
Arrayed against the beneficent alliance of health advocates and anti-gun political advocates are only sinister "powerful lobbies that impede constructive exploration of the full range of social options"  by nefarious p. This is a struggle between modern enlightenment and, at best, morally obtuse and intellectually benighted atavism.
There is no time for arid, academic discussion; the need for gun control is too urgent to require--or allow--equivocation, doubt, debate, or dissent. We reason that the time has come for government and citizens to begin a reasoned dialogue on the "why not" of gun ownership.
If the conduct of youth [sic] and the need for harmony of humans with Nature is valuable to health and civilization, the world's most powerful country may not find justification for an armed citizenry. Evidence or perspectives that p. This literature exists in a vacuum of lock-step orthodoxy almost hermetically sealed from the existence of contrary data or scholarship.
Such contrary data and scholarship routinely go unacknowledged; at best, they are evaded by misleading association with the sinister forces of the gun lobby.
If the universe of sources thus circumscribed does not yield appropriate anti-gun data, editorials are cited as data without noting that they are mere expressions of editorial opinion. Far from concealing or ignoring the potential for bias as health advocates do with anti-gun lobby claims, pro-gun bias is deemed to render pro-gun claims specious per se.
Given the urgent needs of political advocacy, academic health sages all too often feel no compunction about asserting falsehoods, fabricating statistics, and falsifying references to counterfeit support for them. The statement by the president of the American College of Epidemiology is typical when he declares gun ownership the "primary cause" of murder and then calls for research on the subject.
Cowan and sociologist David J.
Bordua in a panel presentation at the annual p. First, the literature cited is almost always that published by medical or public health researchers.
Little is cited from the criminological or sociological field. Second, reports with findings not supporting the position of the journal are rarely cited.
Finally, several assumptions are presented as fact: Incestuous and selective literature citations may be acceptable for political tracts, but introduces an artificial bias into scientific publications.
Stating as fact associations which may be demonstrably false is not just unscientific, it is unprincipled. In the case of firearms, however, the advocacy seems to have preceded the health related research.Case Studies.
CDC epidemiologic case studies are real-life public health cases studies that can be used to introduce epidemiology to students. Epidemiologic Case Studies. Computer-based case studies; Classroom case studies; Outbreak simulation.
The case studies describe the development of successful prevention, population health, and public health programs in graduate health professions education programs, as well as in 2-year and 4-year undergraduate institutions.
tional health and of epidemiology and biostatistics at The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services. She is an expert in epidemiologic study de-.
Case Study: Public Health Shared Services: Northeast Kansas (NEK) Multi-County Health Department Source: Kansas Health Institute The Northeast Kansas (NEK) Multi-County Health Department is a collaboration between three rural counties: Atchison, Brown and Jackson.
It operates as a single agency, but provides public health services in each county. Case: Public Health Dentistry Your patron is practicing dentist in the community.
She receives government subsidies to supply dental care to low-income clients. The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been linked to risks for obesity, diabetes, and heart disease ; therefore, a compelling case can be made for the need for reduced consumption of.