This article is about the hooligan subculture. For the style of clothing, see Casual attire. For the football club, see Casuals F.
That was primarily a development of the 19th century and a reaction to the rapid social change of the industrial revolution and rapid urbanization. Prior togovernments maintained order by a variety of means, local and national. One of the key historical debates concerns the effectiveness of these approaches and the degree of continuity between the premodern and modern police models.
Around a small number of distinctively different types of police institution emerged. The French, under Napoleon, instituted the Gendarmerie, a state military police model.
The model was exported across Europe by Napoleon. The British developed two models. The first, set up to answer similar challenges to the Gendarmerie in France, was the Royal Irish Constabulary model. It was close to the state military model, but distinctively styled as part of the civil power of the state and subordinated to the Magistracy.
The Metropolitan Police was consciously created as a local force with a uniform that was deliberately different from the military and a mission that focused on prevention of crime rather than the repression of disorder.
This state civilian model became the basis for all UK forces on the mainland and the principal influence on the development of East Coast US policing in the s. As the three models have developed and evolved in different political systems over the years sincethey have both diverged and converged in various ways.
There has been significant convergence in the basic disciplines of policing. However, the governance of the police, the use of force, and the management of public disorder have, in many cases, remained quite distinct in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
This bibliography has been organized by national histories. This is, in some ways, the easiest way to organize the material, but it also presents some difficulties in showing some of the crosscutting issues and challenges. General Overviews This set of references provides a good overall introduction to the history of the police.
Emsleyin particular, provides an overview of the history of policing from premodern times to the 20th century, with extensive bibliographic resources for further research.
Uchida provides a good overview of US police history. Wakefield and Fleming provides a set of succinct summaries of the police history from across the globe.
However, these general introductions identify a significant gap in the literature, in that there is no credible, single-volume history of the police which has attempted to summarize the similarities and differences in the development of the police across the modern developing world.
There are some more recent attempts to provide comparative analyses of lateth-century policing, but so far policing has tended to be treated as an aspect of national history rather than a subject of more general application. Mawbyan article in the Handbook of Policing, addresses some of the difficulties of the comparative approach.
However, it does identify some general themes about the relationship between types of policing and industrial development, colonialism and communism, which run across national and regional boundaries.
Emsley provides a very wide-ranging set of articles on policing history generally, and Emsley and Shpayer-Makov provides the best coverage of the history of the detective.
The history of policing.Sep 12, · There is an attitude, ethos and worldview that comes with working in a police profession, and that tends to change the way the officer lives his life.
That lifestyle is the police subculture. It reflects the values, practices, and beliefs held by police officers that shape their working and personal lives. Police subculture is a distinctive set of beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviors that are shared amongst the majority of officers working in police organizations.
In the view of the FBI, most officers learn and become a part of this subculture during the early part of . Feb 28, · Police individuals who follow the police subculture will choose loyalty over integrity; choose brotherhood over the correct thing to do.
With this police subculture existing in the police force, it is extremely difficult to gather Intel regarding police corruption. If that is the case, police investigating police is incomputable and . According to Adler, Mueller, and Laufer () police subculture is a "set of norms and values that govern police behavior, brought about by stressful working conditions plus daily interaction with an often hostile public." Police subculture is responsible for giving officers a unique working attitude and mindset.
POLICE SUBCULTURE Police Subculture Abstract In this paper, we try to explore the concept of Police Subculture. Police subculture is characterized by secrecy, isolation, the adoption of a code of silence and a macho approach to policing, and cynicism.
Culture and Subculture. Culture is part of the external influences that impact the consumer. That is, culture represents influences that are imposed on the consumer by other individuals. The definition of culture offered in one textbook is “That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man person as a member of.