The Andean Group began its official existence in June without Venezuela, which had withdrawn. In the s CAN attempted, with mixed success, to achieve a level of economic integration among its members similar to that of the European Union.
It may be a parody of the original not necessarily humorouswith content referring back to it, or it may be a contrafactum which reuses the music and possibly the lyrical structure of the original, but with different words. Full appreciation of a parody requires familiarity with the original, but appreciation of a contrafactum may not.
Setting satirical or parody lyrics to established tunes is not exclusively the province of science fiction fandom: As Interfilk's "What is it? Style and content[ edit ] Filk has been defined as folk musicusually with a science fiction or fantasy theme, but this definition is not exact.
Filkers have been known to write filk songs about a variety of topics, including but not limited to tangentially related topics such as computers and cats.
In addition, while the majority of filk songs are in the folk style, other styles such as bluescalypsoand even rock appear from time to time.
This definition might be summarized as, "We can argue what it is until we're red or green or blue, but when filkers get together it's the thing we do.
As described later in this article, the origins of filk in science fiction conventions and its current organization emphasizes the social-network aspect of filking. The social aspect of filk as contrasted with the "performer vs. The boundaries of filking are vague.
For example, filking overlaps with the singing and music performed by participants in the Society for Creative Anachronism or at LARPs. Styles and subjects[ edit ] In keeping with the folk-culture roots of filk, the musical styles and topics of filk music are eclectic.
While a plurality of filk is rooted firmly in acoustic-instrument folk music, other pieces and artists draw inspiration from rocka cappella vocal groups, or other styles. The hobbyist and itinerant nature of filk events especially filk circles gives some advantages to acoustic-vocal soloists and small groups, who need only carry a lightweight instrument or two and whose rehearsals do not need to balance scheduling logistics against regular work and other obligations.
One of the few rock-style groups in filk has been Ookla the Mokwhose studio recordings use techniques common in modern rock. Some styles of filk rely heavily on sampling the original source material and integrating it into electronica and hip-hop music such as 76's Objects in Space an homage to the popular TV show Fireflywhich itself featured several filk songs and DJ Qbert 's Wave Twisters.
The range of topics in filk songs stems from its cultural roots in fandom. Many songs honor specific works in science fiction, fantasy, or speculative fiction.
Other songs are about science, fantasy, computers, technology in general, or values related to technological change.
However, some common themes do not fall neatly into filk's science fiction origins. Such topics include songs about cats, popular culture, and politics.
These are perhaps best explained as an outgrowth of filk as a folk culture, open in some respects to expansion by individual artists. A significant number of filk songs are parodieswhether in the original sense of simply re-using a tune or in the modern sense of specifically humorous re-use.
Disadvantages are no independent monetary policy, lack of flexibility, and some countries can become "free riders" What achievements do CAFTA supporters point to as evidence of its success? The central american countries together are the second largest US exporter. The Andean Community of Nations (Spanish: Comunidad Andina de Naciones, CAN) is a trade bloc comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. The trade bloc was called the Andean Pact until , and came into existence in . On October 19, , the Trump Administration released a Presidential Memorandum directing federal agencies to address regulations that burden federal water projects in California and complete biological opinions under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; 16 U.S.C. §§ et seq.) for specific federal water projects in the western United States.
Although parody is not the primary focus of the filk music culture, the proportion of parody songs found in filk is higher than in other musical cultures. One subtype of filk songs is the "ose" song, one on themes of death and gloom. The term derives from the word "morose", as in "ose, morose, even-more-ose".
Tom Lehrer 's non-filk "Irish Ballad". History[ edit ] For the first few decades of the occasional science fiction conventionthere had been late-night singing sessions in hotel rooms. Part of this practice may have been rooted in an older folk culture of fans.
Some of the oldest filks coming out of fandom were protest songs with original words and music written by a group of New York fans called The Futuriansand were written by Fred Pohl and Cyril Kornbluth see Damon Knight's book of the same name, which contains the words and music to several of them.
While many of those original songs faded into obscurity, some remained popular for decades. At the World Science Fiction Convention author Bob Asprin announced publicly the creation of a group of volunteers he dubbed the Dorsai Irregulars, and a singing session ensued later that night.
Some convention organizers allotted hotel function space late at night for filkers, or filking occurred in hallways, bars or any other place that the filkers could find.
Some convention organizers in the s began inviting guests specifically for their filking. These efforts grew to include raising funds for traveling filkers. The first was a British Filk Fund.
Then, in the early s, several active organizers in North America created Interfilk, which is now the most active traveling filker fund. Beginning with British filker Mike Whitaker in40 filkers were the beneficiaries of Interfilk subsidies in its first decade.Established in , IOM is the leading inter-governmental organization in the field of migration and works closely with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners.
About Celestolite. Celestolite, a product of Lionesse, is a brand new line of skin care products that employs a unique and most remarkable ingredient; meteorite dust from authentic celestial bodies.. The stardust powder is thought to have skin-renewing and hydrating properties due to its high silicone and mineral content, which in combination with proven natural botanicals shows phenomenal.
Andean Community The EU has a comprehensive Trade Agreement with Colombia and Peru which has been provisionally applied with Peru since 1 March and with Colombia since 1 August The EU, together with Ecuador, Colombia and Peru, signed the Protocol of Accession of Ecuador to the Trade Agreement with Colombia and Peru on 11 November The Andean Community of Nations.
History. The history of the Andean Community of Nations started on the 26th of May , when Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru signed the Cartagena Agreement. The Andean Community (Spanish: Comunidad Andina, CAN) is a customs union comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.
The trade bloc was called the Andean Pact until and came into existence when the Cartagena Agreement was signed in The “Andean Community” or A.C.
(Spanish: Comunidad Andina, CAN), previously known as the “Andean Pact”, is an intergovernamental organization created by Bolivia, Peru, Venezuela, Columbia and Ecuador with the aim to promote the expansion of markets and guarantee an effective economic development to the region.